In the face of a small corn crop and high prices, there has been a great deal of debate about a partial temporary waiver of the Renewable Fuels Standards (RFS) mandate for ethanol in 2013. Our analysis of the likely impacts of such a waiver can be found here. While the headlines have focused on the short-term implications of waiving the ethanol mandate in 2013, a potentially much larger issue looms on the horizon. Beyond 2013, there are real questions about the feasibility of meeting the ever-increasing requirements of the RFS, and this concern goes beyond the well-known difficulties with meeting the mandate for cellulosic biofuels. The purpose of this post is to show why the RFS is likely to collide with market realities in the near future.
We begin by reviewing the RFS requirements for minimum domestic biofuels consumption in the U.S. as summarized in Table 1. There are three categories in the RFS and each has its own minimum volumetric mandate: renewable, advanced, and total. Renewable biofuels is generally assumed to be corn-based ethanol but this is actually not explicitly required by the RFS legislation. Instead, corn-based ethanol has been the cheapest alternative for this category that also meets the environmental requirements of the RFS. Advanced biofuels has three sub-categories: cellulosic, biodiesel, and undifferentiated. Cellulosic biofuels have been in very limited supply, so the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the government agency charged with enforcing the RFS mandates, has written down the cellulosic mandate to near zero (8.65 million gallons in 2012). The biodiesel mandate was established as a minimum of one billion gallons per year from 2012 through 2022, with larger amounts subject to EPA approval. That mandate has been set at 1.28 billion gallons for 2013. A key point is that to date the EPA has not written down the total mandate for the RFS at the same time as it has reduced the mandate for cellulosic biofuels to near zero. This means that the burden of fulfilling the total advanced component of the mandate has fallen almost entirely on the biodiesel and undifferentiated categories.
This article can accessed in its entirety by visiting http://farmdocdaily.illinois.edu/2012/09/the_impending_collision_of_bio.html